FAQ'sWhat is unique about Episencial products? Episencial is the only company to make baby-safe, all-natural skincare products that support skin immunity and help treat common skin conditions, like eczema, cradle cap and common dehydration. With clinically effective formulas designed to support the health and development of both the skin and body, Episencial provides a protective barrier to insulate vulnerable skin, offset environmental contaminants, and help keep children safe.
Episencial’s three-step skincare system is the first and only professional-quality, all natural and complete skincare system designed specifically to support the developing skin type of babies and kids.
Step 1. Bathe: Gently cleanse and hydrate for fresh, healthy skin. Playful Foaming Wash, Sweet Dreams Bubble Bath Step 2. Nurture: Soothe, heal, moisturize and massage to build immunity and enhance bonding. Soothing Cream, Better Body Butter Step 3. Protect: Prevent and treat to balance and care for tender skin. Nurturing Balm, Sunny Sunscreen SPF 35, and Protective Face Balm. By virtue of all natural ingredients – Episencial products reduce exposure to unnecessary and potentially harmful chemicals so prevalent in skincare products; even those marketed for babies and children. Doctors and medical professionals throughout North America use Episencial’s skincare products in their hospitals.
What is “developing skin?” Just like adult skin can be categorized as normal, dry, oily, acneic, etc., babies and kids have a unique skin type called “developing skin.” As the largest organ of the body, new skin – like baby – is growing and developing into a protective barrier and way to sense and experience the world. And, just like baby, developing skin needs special loving care to grow healthy and strong.We use organic ingredients for Episencial skin care products because they are better for the environment, but also because they are better for the skin. Organic ingredients have more nutritional value with greater antioxidant capabilities than their non-organic counterparts. This is important because of the skin’s transdermal properties. Many nutrients applied to the skin are absorbed into the bloodstream and distributed throughout the body. Unfortunately, the same is true for harmful chemicals that are remarkably prevalent in personal care products – even those marketed for children. So, as a parent, you can make well-considered choices about personal grooming products for your children in order to help protect them and the planet from environmental pollution. All Episencial products are at least 50% organic. Some are a much higher percentage of organic. What is important is that the RIGHT ingredients are organic. Some plants, like thyme for example, are very hardy in nature and don’t require the use of pesticides and fumigants. Others, like raspberry are sweet and delicious and often do require insecticides and such for commercial production. To keep the products affordable, we have selected the ingredients with the highest likelihood of contamination and specifically chosen those to be organic. Also, the natural condition of organic crops is that they are not as reliable as those that are grown under the techniques of mainstream agribusiness. If a crop goes bad due to infection or weather, we have to seek other sources for that particular raw ingredient. So, the actual organic ingredients may vary slightly from batch to batch depending upon what was available in an organic form at the time of production.
When is my baby’s skin likely to be too dry? Ninety percent of mothers don’t think their children have dry skin, but in fact, recent skin maturation studies show that over 60% of children do have dry skin. The signs of dryness are not always evident to the naked eye, but because children’s skin is physiologically less developed than adult skin, it absorbs and loses moisture more easily than mature skin. Dryness leads to increased incidence of eczema, rash and cracking and can open the body up to increased infection and reduced immune efficiency. Babies who travel by airplane or who live in cold and windy climates are most at risk for excessive dryness.
How can I help soothe my baby’s dry skin? To protect from occasional, regular dry skin, we suggest the Better Body Butter. For dry patches, the Protective Face Balm, SPF 6 is the best! Dry skin is more vulnerable to sun damage, so it makes sense to use a low level SPF all the time on dry skin.
As stated above, babies who travel by airplane or who live in cold and windy climates are most at risk for excessive dryness. Top tips for healing excessively dry skin: 1. Replenish moisture with Soothing Cream – a water based moisturizer made with aloe vera base, neem oil and probiotics. 2. Lock moisture in by following Soothing Cream with Better Body Butter which is an oil base – made with olive oil, shea and cocoa butters! 3. Have fingertip cracks that just won’t heal? Layer on the Protective Face Balm to soften and restore skin texture!
How can I avoid eczema breakouts on my baby? For eczema – make sure the cleaning products in the home are non-toxic (no bleach, ammonia or artificial fragrances). Use fragrance free laundry detergent. Eliminate personal grooming products that contain fragrance and preservatives and use those that are from natural sources (like ours). Lastly, eliminate processed foods from the diet (e.g., crackers). Instead, replace those foods with more fruits and vegetables for snacks like carrot sticks, cut apples, red pepper “flowers” and cucumber sticks.
How can I help treat eczema breakouts on my baby? First, wash your baby with our mild, non-irritating Playful Foaming Wash.
Does you child have open wounds?
We recommend a two-fold approach to the open-wound phase of eczema:
1. Apply Nurturing Balm to irritated areas in the evening (because it leaves a protective white residue.)
2. Apply Protective Face Balm SPF 6 during the day.
Once the open-wound phase has ended, apply Soothing Cream to eczematic areas, to further heal and balance skin, and prevent future breakouts.
No open wounds?
If your child does not have open wounds, simply use Soothing Cream on irritated areas.
Episencial’s Soothing Cream is fortified with vitamins, probiotics, neem oil, and many other ingredients that actively protect and restore skin. Probiotics and Noni are anti-inflammatory. When the swelling, heat and pain are removed from an area, the skin has the opportunity to begin the healing process. Our goal is always to create the most positive environment for the skin to allow it to do what it knows how to do – protect us from bacteria, virus and the elements, and eliminate toxins from within. Eczema is a form of over stimulation from a combination of unknown causes probably both internal and external. By addressing the body’s needs for a cleaner environment from the inside and out, we create the space for healing and repair.
What causes diaper rash and how can we get rid of it? The cause of diaper rash is multi-faceted. Imagine a Petri dish and what you do to cause bacteria and fungi to grow. You create a moist environment and add heat! Essentially, our babies bums are little growing zones. If any kind of harmful bacteria or fungi gets a start, it can be very difficult to get rid of it. Actually, every square inch of skin has more bacteria than it does skin cells. A rash is basically indicative of an imbalance in bacteria. So, to rebalance, give the bum as much airtime, sans diaper, as possible. Don’t use wipes with alcohol or any drying agents at all – the best thing is cotton pads with pure water or wipe with a rinse of pure water to eliminate any chemical residue. All wipes have drying agents, as they are necessary to keep bacteria from molding the wipes. Then, use the Episencial Nurturing Balm to create a barrier and healing environment for the skin to do what it knows how to do – protect our bodies from invaders!
I have acne. Can I use your products? The Playful Foaming Wash is perfect for acneic skin as it is cleanses without stripping natural oils. The Soothing Cream is also great because of the insulating features of the product combined with antibacterial neem oil and probiotics, which are often great for acne.
Have Episencial products been clinically tested – specifically the Soothing Cream? We perform all the standard testing that is done by skincare companies – especially for safety and effectiveness. The Episencial Soothing Cream was formulated around 2 generations of experience treating problem skin and 7 years specifically researching the developing skin type of babies and kids. Episencial is guided by the principals of creating a healthy and healing environment for the skin so that it is empowered to heal itself. As you probably know, there is no single known cause of eczema, which technically makes it impossible to “cure” at this time. What we can do is properly support the dermis to stimulate healing responses and help prevent reoccurrence. This is not a product for open eczema wounds, it helps prevent and can help bring the skin back to health before the sore phase of eczema. We call on ingredients that have been used for thousands of years to support eczematic skin such as Neem Oil from the Ayurvedic traditions and probiotics to help restore the ecosystem of the skin. The Soothing Cream has brought relief to many who suffer from Eczema, though we make no medical claims around the product. We would recommend that you try it for yourself. We would be more than happy to send you samples.
How can I tell what the right level of sunscreen is for my child? Is SPF 35 too much for a baby? SPF35 is just exactly right for playing at the beach, park, or in the back yard. Episencial sunscreen is made with mineral protection, not synthetic chemicals. If we were talking about a chemical block, any amount would be too much in my book . Certainly as you go up in SPF value with a chemical block, the potential harm to the skin- especially baby skin – is increased. An SPF of 35 with mineral blocks such as the zinc/titanium combination we use protects from 97% – 98% of the harmful wavelength of UV rays. This protective value gives Episencial Sunny Sunscreen SPF35 a 4-star critical wavelength rating, which is the best possible rating. An SPF of 50 or even 70 using the same blocking agents only adds 2%-3% additional protective value. The use of enough mineral ingredients to achieve an SPF 50 or more using a mineral block makes the end product chalky white, very cumbersome to use, and very expensive.
At what age do you recommend using Episencial products? The Episencial products are perfect for sensitive skin at any age – from birth up. As always, check with your doctor before you use any products on your infant.
Is it true that you are a green company? What exactly does this mean? We believe our products and business practices are opportunities to effect positive change for our world. When we say we are “green” it is because sustainability is at the very core of how we conduct business:
- We use botanical, sustainably farmed, and certified organic ingredients.
- We support alternative energy development. Our products are manufactured in a solar-powered production plant. Our plastic containers are recycled, food-grade, non-leaching, with no residues of dioxins, BpA, phthalates, or other xenoestrogens.
- Our paper packaging is manufactured from recycled sources or comes exclusively from certified sustainable resources.
- Our containers and boxes are beautifully designed and sturdy enough to encourage re-use and re-purposing.
- What is your favorite feature of the Episencial skincare line?
- By far my favorite feature is the fact that we are able to make immune enhancing, top-quality, professional skin care affordable and available to support the new Vivid Green Generation!
Does the Episencial sunscreen contain nanoparticles? The short answer is: Episencial does not use harmful nanoparticles in its formulas. Nanoparticles, particularly those of metallic ingredients, are so small that they are able to pass through the wall, or membrane, of cells in the body and into the bloodstream. Because mineral-based sunscreens use metals such as Zinc and Titanium as the active ingredient, it is helpful to understand that a particle of nano size is not the same thing as a nano particle. A nanoparticle is any particle less than 100 nanometers in diameter (across). This can be confusing as a nano-sized material is not necessarily a nanoparticle. For example, a bulk ingredient material that has been reduced to 500 nanometers is NOT a nanoparticle because it is 5 times larger than 100 nanometers. As a point of reference, a particle must be less than 50 nanometers (a nanoparticle) to enter skin cells; less than 70 nanometers to enter the lungs. Trying to fit a 100 nanometer particle into the skin cell membrane is like trying to force a baseball through a hole the size of a ping-pong ball. It is physically impossible.
Episencial’s mineral sunscreen ingredients are all significantly larger than 100 nanometers. Medical science does not yet fully understand the complications and risks associated with nanoparticles, but their presence in the bloodstream has been linked to liver damage, Alzheimer’s and other health problems. So, when choosing a chemical-free sunscreen, it is important to ensure that the manufacturer does NOT use nanoparticles of zinc or titanium.
What is the real deal with PEG-120 Methyl Glucose Dioleate? The ingredient PEG-120 Methyl Glucose Dioleate (MGD) is a completely safe and natural raw material that we use for its thickening properties. Our PEG-120 is produced from renewable resources (sugar, not petroleum) so it is not at risk of contamination with 1,4 dioxane. It offers an eye irritation score of 0 (zero) and fantastic safety records. Without a thickening ingredient all cleansing products would be very watery and pour too easily out of the bottle, causing spills, wasted product and frustrated kids and parents. Most companies use a petroleum based thickener like PEG-150 Distearate, which we would never use. We wouldn’t use PEG-150 (or MGD that was sourced from petroleum) because it can damage the skin and is not-at-all eco friendly. A potential risk that the EWG lists for PEG-120 is ethylene oxide (EO) contamination. Consequently, we take added precautions in the purification of our products and employ additional testing measures to ensure our products are safe from contaminants. We are very picky about our raw materials and require extensive safety testing, as well as verification of quality and claims.
Please note: because EWG does not distinguish between contaminated and pure ingredients, we are taking it out of our formulas.
What is the real deal with Cocamidoproply Betaine? Let me first assure you that we did not make the choice to use Cocamidopropyl Betaine (CAPB) lightly and, in fact, only did so after finding source material that was of the highest quality and thoroughly refined. You see, the primary issue with CAPB among health advocates (such as The Environmental Working Group which rates CAPB as a 5 on its 1-10 scale) is not the ingredient itself, rather the prevalence of nitrosamine contamination – this is particularly true when used in combination with the ingredient DEA/TEA. We use a very small amount of plant-based CAPB as, in its purified state it is a safe and mild cleansing agent (rather than known irritants such a sodium laurel and laureth sulfates) that improves the texture of the product. The refined nature of our source material and testing protocols coupled with the small quantity and the fact that CAPB does not accumulate in the body, allows us to take advantage of its benefits while neutralizing potential health risks. That said, do look out for products that include both DEA/TEA and CAPB as those formulas are likely to be contaminated with nitrosamines. Nitrosamines can be very harmful to the body as they are absorbed through the skin, and should always be avoided. We specifically exclude DEA/TEA in our formulas for this very reason.
Please note: because EWG does not distinguish between types of CAPB, we are taking it out of our formulas.
What’s the real deal with tea tree oil and lavender safe? Are they xeno-estrogens? To have access to vast amounts of information can be both a gift and a curse. It can be quite difficult to know what information can be trusted. In the case of xenoestrogens, which are estrogen-like chemicals that mimic estrogen in the body to cause hormonal disruption, there is a great deal of fear-inducing misinformation out there on the web. Thankfully, there are some sources that work very hard to validate their findings and are much more reliable than other sources. In the case of suspected xeno-estrogens Lavender and Tea Tree oil, the Cosmetic Database weighs in by giving both of them a rating of 0-2 depending upon use. Even at its highest, 2, these ingredients are well within the realm of safety.
Lavender – Limited evidence of disruption and not suspected to be bio-accumulative.
Tea Tree Oil -
What is the real deal with Retinyl Palmitate and Vitamin A ? Retinyl Palmitate contains vitamin A, an essential building block of skin. According to a review in the journal “Clinics in Dermatology,” human skin naturally contains a significant amount of vitamin A, as the vitamin and it’s derivatives called retinoids, have a crucial role in maintaining and repairing skin tissue.
However, vitamin A - in excess – can have cause photosensitivity as well as thinning of skin through accelerated exfoliation. A study done by the Environmental Working Group to test the safety of vitamin A was done at concentrations between 10% and 50% pure vitamin A – this is not reflective of how vitamin A is safely used. In addition, the affects of vitamin A on the experimental group vs. the control group were statistically significant and dose-dependent (EWG 2010).
We can assure you that our Protective Face Balm contains vitamin A at the safe, healthy and appropriate levels to support the thickening of skin and production of collagen.
Do Episencial products contain preservatives? No, Episencial does not use preservatives in any of our products. We never use, parabens, phenoxyethanol, or other unhealthy chemical preservatives that may act like estrogens in the body or donate toxins such as formaldehyde, and 1-4 dioxane. Episencial’s formulas include a patented blend of botanicals to keep the products fresh and stable for upwards of two years. Our all natural approach to product freshness includes glycerol caprylate (made from grapeseed, palm nut or coconut) and natural fruit esters. Because of our decades of experience working with natural ingredients, we know that Capryl Hydroxamic Acid, Caprylyl Glycol, Ethylhexylglycerin – primarily used as moisturizers and humectants in our products – also work, in our exclusive formula, to naturally and safety stabilize the product; in effect “preserving” the product without the use of synthetic preservatives we know to be both unnecessary and potentially unhealthy.
Are the fruit juice extracts and oils in Episencial products “fragrances”? The word “fragrance” on a label may indicate thousands of undisclosed synthetic chemicals, many of which are known to cause discoloration to skin, coughing, vomiting, and skin irritation upon inhalation or contact. Even more troubling, they can also affect the central nervous system, causing depression, hyperactivity, and irritability. Finding products that are fragrance free really is of paramount importance. Episencial products smell wonderful from pure fruit juice and vegetable extracts. The smells delight both parent and child. While parents should absolutely be concerned about fragrance, smells are not inherently bad. They are an important part of bonding, brain development, and baby’s exploration of the world. It is the word “fragrance” that we must avoid, because it doesn’t give us complete information about the products we are using and can be used by manufacturers to bury other ingredients that you would never normally use on your baby or yourself. See this video of Kim Walls speaking about fragrance at the Pregnancy Awareness Event in Los Angeles in 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4gDb24DTk4c
The EWG gives fragrance a rating of 8 not because smells are bad, but because fragrance can include very harmful dispersants: “The word fragrance or parfum on the product label represents an undisclosed mixture of various scent chemicals and ingredients used as fragrance dispersants such as diethyl phthalate. http://www.cosmeticsdatabase.com/ingredient/702512/FRAGRANCE/
What product do you recommend using with cloth diapers? We recommend Soothing Cream for use with cloth diapers. While healing and protective like Nurturing Balm, Soothing Cream does not contain zinc and therefore is much easier on your washing machine. For severe rash and wounds, however, Nurturing Balm is best.
Can the Nurturing Balm be used to protect and heal rashes on the vaginal region of little girls? Absolutely!
Can the Nurturing Balm diaper cream be used as a sunscreen? This product does not perform the same functions of a sunscreen. It is meant to protect, stregthen, and create a delicate barrier against germs & bacteria. The particles of Zinc oxide for sun screen have a smaller molecular size than the zinc that is used in our diaper spray. The best product for sun protection is the Sunny Sunscreen SPF 35.
Do Episencial products contain wheat? Episencial products do not contain wheat, they are gluten free. There are ingredients used in the products that are derived from oat, but oat extracts do not retain gluten or have allergenic properties. As always, it is good to test a patch of skin on your child and check with your pediatrician before using any product on your infant.
Do your products contain gluten? The products do not contain gluten. Avena Sativa (Oat) Kernal extract and Tocopherol (Vitamin E) are sometimes confused to have allergenic properties. Avena Sativa is an extract, and not mashed oats. Avena Sativa may still contain trace amounts of gluten; however, medical studies show that even celiac patients in remission who suffer severe reactions to gluten tolerate large amounts of oats (93g ingested p/day) with NO adverse effects (Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jan; 57(1):163-9). Avena Sativa is a nutrient packed ingredient with flavenoids, minerals, Vitamins B1, B2, D, E, carotene and healthy fats. Wheat is the primary gluten donor of all the grains, so we use the oat instead of wheat to protect and nourish sensitive skin. Regardless, if you are concerned about gluten sensitivity, it is best to check with your pediatrician before using any product.
Are your products vegan? Four of our products are vegan. Sunny Sunscreen SPF 35 & Protective Face Balm SPF 6 contain beeswax and Soothing Cream contains probiotics from a yogurt culture
Does Episencial test on animals? Episencial does not test products on animals, and does not have animal testing conducted on our behalf. We ensure the safety of our products by using gentle ingredients that have been used reliably for many years in addition to clinical testing in the laboratory setting.
Does the Green Tea Extract in your Soothing Cream and Sunny Sunscreen contain caffeine? Episencial’s Green Tea Extract is caffeine-free! We extract the polyphenol content for its antioxidizing capacity – it is 20 times more powerful than Vitamin C. We also love its biochemical properties as an anticarcinogen, anti-inflammatory, and anti-radiation.
Why do your products contain so many ingredients? Isn’t fewer ingredients better?
The length of the ingredients is a positive! It is a feature of the products as those ingredients are beneficial to the developing and sensitive skin types. We specifically select actively healthy ingredients – as many of them as possible, while still keeping the price affordable.
What additives do you use in the bath products as to not irritate the eyes? We DO NOT use additives to make the products non-irritating. The ingredients themselves are so mild and high quality that they simply don’t irritate the skin or eyes.
Why is the ingredient listing on my product different from the listing on your site? As we continue to refine our formulas, including raising the organic ingredient content and improving the efficacy of the products themselves for certain conditions, the most up to date ingredient lists will be posted on our website. You may note discrepancies between the bottle in your hand and the lists on this site. Our website is constantly updated as new formulas are produced which is happening all the time.
Why do Episencial products smell differently from time to time? Because we work exclusively with all natural ingredients there are, by nature, variances in the aroma of our products – it is part of the art of working with natural ingredients. While we test to ensure the each of our products meets our stringent standards for safety and efficacy; because we do not use synthetic perfumes or fragrances there isn’t exactly a “smell test.” Each batch may be slightly – and usually unnoticeably – different.
Do Episencial products expire? Our products are stable for at least two years from the manufacturing date… and we manufacture the products many times each year to be sure they are always fresh. That means you always have more than a year and a half for any given product!
Is Episencial packaging recyclable? Yes, our packaging is recyclable and much of it is recycled too! Our packaging comes from certified sustainable resources. In addition our products are biodegradable and produced in a solar powered manufacturing facility. Before you throw anything away, we encourage you to reuse it to make potions, for paint or any other creative thing you can think about.
Why do you use plastic containers? The Episencial containers are made of recycled food grade, PET 1 plastic that does not leach toxic chemicals. Children’s personal care products may not be sold legally in glass containers. Glass is considered a safety hazard by the government. Aluminum and other types of packaging have their own set of problems. There are new materials under development that will be ready for use at some point, but the manufacturers of these products are not yet ready for large-scale distribution and there has not been enough safety testing on those materials to warrant use. Our plastic containers are recycled, recyclable, reusable, produced in a solar powered manufacturing facility, sturdy, safe, and ergonomically friendly.
Don’t aromatherapy oils degrade plastic and lose their potency when exposed to light? Pure aromatherapy oils are 100% oil. These can be very fragile and can indeed degrade plastic and lose potency when exposed to light. Pure oils should always be purchased in dark glass containers. Amber and Cobalt glass are preferable. Aromatherapy for babies and pregnancy must always be below .05% total pure oil, our product formulations do not have the degrading effect on plastic and do not lose potency as easily. The non-aromatherapy ingredients, fruit extracts, minerals, antioxidants, and such are specially formulated to protect the oils and add sustainability through the bonding of organic chemistry. The Episencial lotions, cleansers and personal care products are given extra protection by the fact that they are formulated and stored inside opaque containers and in a cool, dark place (away from heat, moisture and light.) The shelf life of our products is enhanced because they are manufactured, shipped and stored in small quantities- so fresh batches of products are produced all the time.
Do you have samples? Yes! Please visit FreeEpisencialSamples.com for free samples. You now only get an assortment of our best selling product samples, but a diaper bag-sized Soothing Cream, as well. The samples are free, you only pay shipping ($2.99). Many of our retailers distribute samples as well!
How can I receive a printed catalog? We are proud to say we are an earth-friendly company – so, we encourage you to view our products online and in stores. With the help of our customers we hope to produce fewer catalogues in paper and preserve more trees for shade. The Episencial website has our entire product range, product line and detailed information about us, the ingredients in our products, and the beneficial properties of our doctor recommended, clinically effective formulas.
Where can I find Episencial products locally? Episencial products are being sold at fine retailers and in hospitals nation-wide. See the Store Locator for a complete list.
How do I recommend a store that should carry your products? Simply write to us at www.episencial.com. Please try to include the name, address, phone number and favorite person at the store you’d like to recommend.
As a retailer, I am interested in offering Episencial products to my customers. Who should I contact? You can contact us directly – approved retail partners receive products as well as training, merchandising materials and sales support for your continued success selling Episencial products. To begin the easy process, please fill out the merchant application.
Please note: Episencial, LLC. reserves the right to work only with retailers who we deem a good fit, and who are aligned with our core values. This is solely at Episencial’s discretion – re-sell of all Episencial products is limited to approved retail partners.
My store carries a few Episencial products, can we be added to your store locator? The store locator is reserved for retailers that carry the full Episencial line (all seven products.) We would love to add you. Just let us know when you are ready for the full line and we will add you to the website asasp!
Am I eligible for a wholesale account? You can fill out a merchant application online or call us at 800.690.1610. Orders for existing accounts are accepted through EDI. Non EDI compliant retailers are accepted on a case-by-case basis. New wholesale accounts must be approved by Episencial, and must meet certain criteria. Retailers agree to sell the products at MSRP and have a valid resale permit. Episencial does require a minimum order, upscale presentation of the products, and an authentic commitment to green business practices.
Do you drop ship? No.
We want to place a wholesale order for our upscale boutique and we are now concerned as we see Episencial available for sale online. We were hoping to pick up a specialty line. Can you please assure me that Episencial will be offered at the same price among different retailers – both online and store front? You did indeed find a specialty line with professional quality products that works closely with retailers to ensure clean, beautiful presentation. The Episencial products are designed to offer green values, organic ingredients, and actively healthy formulas to everyone who wants the best for their children. Prices and margins are standardized. Except for manufacturer-approved promotions, parents will find the products at the same price everywhere they go.
Specialty retailers as well as more mainstream retailers embrace Episencial because the company offers superior products with an authentic commitment to supporting a Vivid Green Generation. Our parents shop online sometimes and in stores sometimes too. We are about being actively healthy every day – which means Episencial products are available to consumers when and where they want them at an every-day affordable price.